This paper describes a serial infrared transmitter (SIT) capable
of generating the infrared codes used by most current equipment that
incorporates an infrared remote control. It is operated by a computer
through an asynchronous communications port. Driver software for a
computer with such a port can use the SIT to issue commands to
remote-controlled equipment, and can thus act as a universal infrared
remote control. Putting the equipment under computer control presents
many possibilities besides direct use through a menu or command line.
The major limitation in application of the SIT is that it can
only produce one carrier frequency. Since most current equipment uses
a 40 KHz carrier, this is not a serious problem. Also, the device
does not record the output of remote controls. The remote codes must
be analyzed by other means and saved in data files.
The SIT is intended to use an asynchronous serial bitstream to
modulate an infrared carrier in the simplest manner possible. It is
operated exclusively from a computer. It has no keypad; commands are
entered at the computer keyboard, or selected with a mouse or other
input device. The SIT is not programmable. The codes used to control
the remote equipment are stored on the computer and sent to the SIT as
Asynchronous communication is used for several reasons. Asyn-
chronous ports are available for virtually all computers. Since the
asynchronous port produces a precisely timed serial bitstream, there
is no need for circuitry on the SIT to do that. Also, a single byte
written to the computer’s serial port can be used to send several bits
to the SIT, while a parallel port used for direct output would require
that a byte be written for each bit to be sent. If the serial port
uses a UART (serial transceiver chip) with an on-board FIFO buffer,
several bytes can be written to it at once (up to 16 for the 16550
series of UARTs), further reducing the load on the computer, which may
have other functions.
The major problem with using an asynchronous port for
communication is that the infrared codes used by common equipment are
not asynchronous. They are usually self-clocking bitstreams with no
start or stop bits, often with variable bit timing. Therefore, an
asynchronous port cannot directly produce the required codes. How-
ever, carrier transitions do occur at intervals set by a fixed clock,
so that the codes can be synthesized if the carrier can be switched on
and off at the rate set by the clock. Although each unit has its own
clock rate, the remote receivers are highly tolerant of timing
discrepancies, so the clock rates do not need to be matched exactly.
Because a UART produces a bitstream that includes start and stop
bits after every word, it cannot directly send the codes even if its
clock rate is set to the same clock rate used by an infrared remote.
The SIT circumvents this problem by using the UART to send one-bit
words. Every data bit sent by the UART is preceded by a start bit and
followed by a stop bit, so each data bit takes the same amount of time
to send. By using the data bit to set the state of the carrier for
three serial bit periods (until the next data bit is received), the
SIT lets a stream of data bits control equal periods of carrier time.
The UARTs used by most computers can only be set to between five
and eight data bits per word. To simulate a one-bit UART, the UART is
set to seven data bits per word with one start bit and one stop bit,
for a total of nine bit times per byte written to the UART. The byte
written to the UART is arranged so that it actually includes three
data bits, with the other bits always set to one or zero to simulate
the other start and stop bits (depicted later). From here on, the
term ”data bit” will refer to the bits that control the state of the
carrier, three of which are written to the UART in each byte. The
rate at which these data bits are sent, which determines the controll-
able unit of carrier time, is referred to as the SIT rate.
The data rate used by remotes is low enough, and the tolerance
for timing errors (afforded by the self-clocking protocols) is high
enough, that the asynchronous port can be set to a relatively low,
standard Baud rate and still have fine enough timing granularity to
operate various remote devices. A standard Baud rate also allows the
SIT to be used from an operating system like UNIX that does not allow
setting the Baud rate to nonstandard values without modifications to
the serial driver. The Baud rate is selected so that the SIT rate
(one-third the Baud rate) is an even enough multiple of the clock
rates of all of the receivers of the equipment to be operated that the
waveforms produced are within their tolerance. If the clock rates
vary widely, the Baud rate should be selected so that the SIT rate is
sufficient for the equipment with the highest clock rates. This will
probably result in sufficiently fine granularity to synthesize the
waveforms of the remotes with lower clock rates.
2. Circuit Description
It is relatively easy to extract the data from the one-bit asyn-
chronous protocol so that it can be used for carrier modulation. The
code for a data bit can have only two forms. It will always have one
rising edge and one falling edge. The rising edge will occur at the
start of the start bit. The falling edge will occur after the end of
the start bit if the data bit is a one (because a one is transmitted
as a low voltage by an RS232 port), or at the end of the data bit if
the data bit is a zero. The stop bit guarantees that even if the data
bit is a zero, there will be a period of low voltage between the end
of the data bit and the next start bit.
To convert each start bit/data bit/stop bit into a continuous
high or low voltage, the SIT starts a one-shot timer each time the
data line goes high. The one-shot is set to 1.5 serial bit times.
When the one-shot finishes, whatever value is on the data line is
latched. The latched value is used to enable or disable the carrier
transmission. Another timer ensures that if the last bit sent to the
SIT inadvertantly leaves the carrier on, it is eventually turned off.
0 | : |_____
1 | |:_________
^ Latch Time
The SIT is implemented in CMOS so that it can be battery
operated. The carrier disable turns off both the carrier oscillator
and the infrared emitters so that the SIT will be completely quiescent
when not being used. The analog parts of the design avoid DC current
paths, resulting in a quiescent current consumption of approximately
0.5 uA. This makes operation from a 9V battery practical without the
need for trickle charging from the data line or other schemes.
The input signal is conditioned by resistors and diodes to limit
it to the range (0,+9V). It is inverted and cleaned up by a NAND
gate. This signal is fed to a one-shot made from two NAND gates
arranged with feedback so that even if the trigger ends before the
timing period ends (as it will if the data bit is a one), the one-shot
will continue timing. The cleaned up signal is also put on the D
input of a flip-flop, in addition to driving an RC network which will
reset the flip-flop whenever no data is transmitted for a certain
period of time (so that the transmitter will not be left on).
The output of the one shot is the clock for the flip-flop. The
received data bits appear at the outputs of the flip-flop, which
enable or disable an oscillator made from a Schmitt NAND gate, and
reset or allow clocking of the flip-flop that the oscillator drives.
The flip-flop output drives a VMOS transistor which in turn drives two
high-power infrared emitting diodes. The emitters can be mounted
parallel to each other to obtain greater range than a single emitter
would have, or can be mounted with an angle between them for better
coverage of multiple pieces of equipment. They are in series, so no
more current is used for two than would be needed for one. The flip-
flop ensures that a good square wave is produced for the carrier, and
avoids the need for another inverter (package or transistor) which
would be necessary because disabling the oscillator forces it high
which would turn on the N-channel VMOS transistor. The transistor
also drives a visible-red emitter to provide an operating indicator.
3. Transmitter Construction
+9 O|/| |/|_ +9 O|/|,—\/\/\/–+ + O +9
|| | || _|_ || | ^ R1 |–)|–+|
O Tx | \c/ |_| _|_470uF| |
|–\/\/--+–| \ ,—-| \ | _ \c/ _| |_IR
| 47K +9 | U1A |O–| | U1B |O–|(–+–| \ red\ / \ /
| O–|/ | ,-|/ 1uF +9 | U1C |O-+ —
/10 ______________| | O–|/ | | |
\K | | | ___|________________________| | _|IR
/ | |_ | | _____________________ \ \ /
\ / /\ |||_ _|__ / —~~
/ \ | | D > ~Q | ,-| \ 80KHz| R | 470R \ |
| /1M | | Q|–‘ | U1D |O–+–|> ~Q|–+ / |
_|_ \ |—-|R U2A | ,-|/ | | U2B | | \ \
\c/ / | | | | / | D|–‘ | /
|| |_S_____| | 20K \ |S_Q| ____| 27R \
| 0.1uF | 0.001uF| / | | || | 1W /
–|(–+ _|_ ,–)|–|_ \ _|_ —–||<-+ | \
| \c/ | | | / \c/ ||| | | _| | | R2 V 20K | VN10KM |_ |__| Common \c/ \c/ —\/\/-—‘ \c/
U1 is a CD4093B quad Schmitt NAND package. U2 is a CD4013B dual D flip-flop package. All diodes are 1N914 or equivalent. The IR emitters are XC880A or equivalent. The LED marked ”red” can be any visible LED. The transistor marked VN10KM can be any N-channel power MOSFET with an ON resistance at 9V gate voltage of five ohms or less. None of the component values is critical. The adjusted value of R1 should be approximately (2e+9)/(bits/s) ohms, where (bit/s) is the Baud rate of the port the SIT is connected to. Select a pot with a somewhat higher value and adjust it until the output of U1C goes low for about 1.5x the bit time of the serial port each time a data bit is sent. Adjust R2 until the output of U1D is 80 KHz when the oscillator is on. Connect the serial line signal ground to the circuit common. Connect the serial transmit-data line to the point marked Tx. Remember to apply power to the two integrated cir- cuits. The serial signal, clipped to the power supply rails, should appear at the input of U1A. Note that the 9V supply and CMOS circui- try require that the serial signal reach at least +4.5V when a zero is sent in order for it to be recognized. Any good serial port will easily satisfy this (most reach +12V to +15V). The serial signal should appear inverted at the output of U1A. The output of U1B should go high for 1.5 bit times when a one is sent, and go high for two bit times when a zero is sent. The output of U1C should go low for 1.5 bit times regardless of what is sent. The data bit transmitted should appear on the Q output of U2A. When a one is sent, the oscillator formed from U1D should produce an 80 KHz signal at the output of U1D, and a 40 KHz square wave should appear at the Q output of U2B and should be transmitted by the IR emitters. If a sequence of ones is sent, the visible LED should flicker on. 4. Adjustment and Operation To select the SIT rate, determine the clock period of the remote codes of the equipment to be controlled. This is the unit of time on which all carrier transitions take place. For example, one Mitsubishi remote sends a zero as 10 cycles of carrier followed by 30 cycles of no carrier, and a one as 10 cycles of carrier followed by 70 cycles of no carrier. The clock period is therefore 10 cycles of 40 KHz, or 1/4000 second. Accurately creating codes for this device requires a SIT rate of 4000 bps. When all of the clock periods have been determined, select a SIT rate that all of the clock periods can be approximately constructed from. Generally, just selecting the shortest clock period will work. If it doesn’t, halve the period. Multiply the SIT rate by three to get the approximate serial rate and then select the closest standard serial rate. For the Mitsubishi remote, the approximate serial rate is 12 Kbps. The closest standard serial rates are 9600 bps and 19.2 Kbps, giving SIT rates of 3200 bps and 6400 bps. Most receivers expecting a code with a clock period of 1/4000 second will accept codes produced with a SIT rate of 3200 bps, so a serial rate of 9600 bps would be tried first. In some cases, it may not be necessary to accurately reproduce a short pulse sent by a remote. Some remotes send a brief, intense pulse for each bit, followed by variable period of off-time. This is used to extend the range of the remote without overdriving the emitter. A longer pulse, requiring less time resolution, will also work, since the data is coded in the length of the period from the start of the pulse to the start of the next pulse. For example, the receiver for the Mitsubishi remote described above actually works fine with the serial port set to 4800 bps and the SIT set accordingly, as long as the software driving the serial port rounds up codes that are less than one data-bit-time long. The receiver is allowing consider- able leeway: 0 1 Expected ~ ~_______ Sent ~
It is generally advisable to use the lowest serial port rate that
will work. Although serial ports can often be set to very high rates,
perhaps up to 110 Kbps, the system may not actually be able to write
data at that rate, especially if it has other functions. Each word
will be sent at a high rate, but there will be gaps between them, so
that the timing of the code is ruined. Under UNIX, output at high
rates may break up on clist (serial driver character buffer) boun-
daries, so it is advantageous to ensure that an entire code fits in a
clist, which is typically 64 bytes long. At higher Baud rates, it is
necessary to send more data to transmit the same code, so that a code
may require more than a clist can hold. Even if a single remote code
fits in a clist, a multi-code sequence may not. It may even be longer
than the maximum amount of data that will be stored by the serial
driver for tty output. Breakup will occur if the process generating
output is not run again before the tty output buffer is exhausted.
Using the lowest Baud rate possible reduces all of these problems.
To use the SIT, set the serial port to the Baud rate that R1 has
been adjusted for, and seven data bits, one start bit, and one stop
bit. In the byte written to the serial port, bits one and four should
always be one (to create extra stop bits), and bits two and five
should always be zero (to create extra start bits). The data bits to
be transmitted are sent in bits zero, three, and six. An RS232 port
transmits a one as a negative voltage and a zero as a positive vol-
tage. Data is transmitted from low bit to high bit. After clipping
to the supply rails, a one bit appears as 0V and a zero bit appears as
_________ ______ _________
0 /start\ 0/lo \ 1 / 2 \ 3 \ 4 / 5 \ 6/hi \ stop
1 / _____/ _____/ ________
| start bit 0 stop | start bit 1 stop | start bit 2 stop |
Place the SIT somewhere where the emitters can cover all of the
equipment to be controlled, preferably in a position where the
transmissions are not likely to be blocked. If the equipment is
stacked on shelves and the SIT is put at the front of the bottom shelf
with the emitters pointed up, transmission is unlikely to be blocked.
However, the transmissions will be perpendicular to the receivers, so
it will probably be necessary to add reflectors to make the SIT work
reliably. Try taping small pieces of aluminum foil above the
receivers, either on the equipment itself or on the shelf above each
piece of equipment. Angle the foil so as to reflect the transmissions
into the receivers, with the foil high enough that the equipment can
still be operated by the handheld remotes.
5. Decoding Signals
The best way to decode the signals from an infrared remote is to
digitize and record them. The data could then be directly used, or
could be converted to a more easily interpreted form. The codes can
be observed with a phototransistor or photodiode, or by opening up the
remote control and connecting directly to the emitter leads.
If no means of digitizing signals is available, the next best
option is to use a storage oscilloscope and transcribe the codes manu-
ally. If only a non-storage ’scope is available, a code can usually
be viewed by holding down a button on the remote. However, some
remotes only send a code once, so it may be necessary to repeatedly
press each button to view the code for the button. The codes tend to
be somewhat long, so set the ’scope to x10 time magnification, if
First determine the fundamental form of the codes. The base time
period that all state changes occur on will probably be relatively
obvious. Don’t look at the beginning or ending of the pulse train for
this, because the code may start or end with a sequence where the car-
rier is on and/or off for longer periods than it is at any point in
the data. Generally, the base time period will be the length of the
shortest on- or off-time observed anywhere in the code. Record the
number of carrier cycles in the base time period.
Once the base time period has been found, write down some code
segments with on-times written as 1 and off-times written as 0. But,
don’t consider these to be the real code being transmitted, because
the self-clocking protocol includes a lot of redundancy. Codes could
be recorded and transmitted this way, but the transcription would be
needlessly verbose, and would obscure the underlying code. Instead,
determine the bit encoding that is being used. Try dividing the code
segments into bits on zero to one transitions (points where the car-
rier turns on), so that each bit code consists of an on-time followed
by an off-time. Some remotes may use other codes (for example, Man-
There should be only two bit codes. They will probably have dif-
ferent lengths. Decide which will be recorded as a zero and which
will be recorded as a one. In the example data given below, the
shorter code, or the one that has the shorter on-time, is taken to be
a zero and the other is taken to be a one. Once the codes for zero
and one have been determined, the codes for each button can be
recorded in this more compact form. However, it may be necessary to
separately record a ”start” or ”stop” sequence that cannot be
described using the codes for zero and 1 (though none of the remotes
described below have a stop sequence like this).
To further reduce the amount of data transcribed and saved, check
the codes sent by each button for a common prefix and/or suffix, after
the start and before the stop sequences, if any. If there are pre-
fixes and/or suffixes that are common to all of the codes, they can be
recorded just once. Be very careful to start and finish transcribing
the variable part of the code for each button at the correct points.
If the remote sends codes that appear to be of constant length after
conversion, a code that comes out longer or shorter is likely to have
been copied incorrectly. This is another reason to record the actual
function codes instead of their transmitted forms.
Here are some examples. Data bit coding is shown with on periods
as ~ and off periods as _. Start and stop are start and stop
sequences that cannot be represented with ones and zeros. They are
given in the same form as the data bit codes. Prefix and suffix are
the common prefix and suffix codes found. Pause, sleep, and repeat
are described later.
Mitsubishi VCR/audio/TV remote, with the VCR/audio|TV switch set
to VCR/audio, and the VCR-A/VCR-B/Audio select set to VCR-A.
Carrier: 40 KHz
Cycles in base time period: 10
0 data bit: ~___
1 data bit: ~_______
start, stop, suffix: none
Length of unique part of codes: 13 bits
Pause: 25 mS
Sleep: 25 mS
Kenwood Remote Control Unit RC-6010
Carrier: 40 KHz
Cycles in base time period: 22
0 data bit: ~_
1 data bit: ~___
Start: ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ________
Suffix, stop: none
Length of unique part of codes: 17 bits
Pause: 4 mS
Sleep: 50 mS
Sony CD Player Remote RM-D505
Carrier: 40 KHz
Cycles in base time period: 24
0 data bit: ~_
1 data bit: _
Start: ~~ _
Prefix, stop: none
Length of unique part of codes: 7 bits
Pause: 25 mS
Sleep: 60 mS
An IR receiver may help in transcribing the codes. Radio Shack
sells the GP1U52X IR receiver/demodulator module for about $5.00. It
detects 40 KHz modulated IR signals and produces a TTL and CMOS compa-
tible signal, and comes with a data sheet. It works fairly well, but
it should not be used for the initial analysis of the signals. The
turn-on and turn-off times of the GP1U52X are considerably different,
and vary with IR signal strength, resulting in a distorted output
waveform. However, once the bit codes have been determined, they can
be easily recognized in the GP1U52X output, and it makes transcription
easier by removing the clutter of the 40 KHz carrier.
6. Driving the Transmitter
Once the function (button) codes, prefixes, suffixes, start and
stop sequences, one and zero codes, and base period have been
recorded, the information can be used to transmit remote control
codes. Convert the one, zero, start, and stop codes into interface
bit codes by determining how many interface bits will be needed to
transmit each of the off-times and on-times in the codes. For each
off-time and on-time, add the appropriate number of zeros or ones to
the interface bit code being generated. Remember that each interface
bit will take three serial port bit times to transmit, and therefore
will turn the carrier on or off for three serial port bit times. Con-
vert the prefix and suffix into an interface bit code by replacing
each zero and one with the interface bit code for zero or one.
To transmit a function code, convert the function code into an
interface bit code the same way the prefix and suffix were. Construct
a complete code sequence by stringing together the interface bit codes
for the start sequence, prefix, function code, suffix, and stop
sequence. Convert this into data to be sent to the serial port by
taking three bits at a time and substituting them into the correct
places in a byte as described in the section on using the SIT. It may
help to build a lookup table to translate the eight possible three-bit
values into bytes to be sent to the serial port.
To get the SIT to work, a few other parameters may have to be
recorded. Some equipment requires that a code be received more than
once before it is acted on. If the SIT is functioning correctly
(preferably verified by detecting its output with an IR receiver
module and viewing it on a ’scope), but the transmitted codes aren’t
being recognized, hold down a button on the remote for the equipment
and record how long it pauses between repeating codes (if it repeats
at all). Then try using the SIT to send codes to the equipment multi-
ple times, with pauses between them of the same duration the remote
used. It shouldn’t need more than a few repeats to make it work. The
time between repeats is the ”pause” time given in the remote data.
The number of repeats required is the value given for ”repeat” in the
remote data (a repeat value of one means the code only needs to be
A pause time is given for the Kenwood remote even though it only
requires one repeat because for some functions (volume up, volume
down, etc.) it may be useful to simulate a continuous button press.
The Kenwood remote only sends a code once, and then sends a ”button
pressed” code until the button is released. However, repeatedly send-
ing the code for the button has the same effect.
Another parameter that may be important is the length of time
that must pass with no code being sent before a new code can be sent
and be recognized as a new button press. This information will be
needed to automatically send multi-function sequences. Determine it
by experimentation. This is the ”sleep” time given in the remote
Finally, check all of the codes by sending them to the equipment.
If they were recorded manually, some of them may not work due to
errors in transcription and will need to be re-recorded.
# @(#) kenwood.dat 1.1 92/01/14
# John H. DuBois III 91/12/21
# Lines beginning with # are comments
name=Kenwood Remote Control Unit RC-6010
# Kenwood remote sensor works fine with a transmitter rate of 1600
# carrier is the carrier frequency required, in Hz.
# This information may be used by a driver that has access to more than
# one transmitter, or with a system that can set the transmitter frequency.
# Transmitter codes are given as a string of 1’s and 0’s in the function code
# table. The actual IR pulse codes emitted for each 1 and 0 are given by the
# value that ”one” and ”zero” are set to. Each character of the values of
# ”one” and ”zero” indicates whether the 40 KHz IR transmitter is on for a unit
# of time. The duration of the unit of time represented by each character of
# the values of ”one” and ”zero” is given by the value of ”cycles”.
# cycles is the number of 40 KHz cycles (25 uS periods) represented by each
# character in the definitions of ”one” and ”zero”.
# repeat is the number of times the code should be sent
# pause is the length of time to wait between code repeats.
# It is given in the units given by the definition of ”cycles”
# instead of in mS so that equipment that requires a very short
# pause can be accomodated.
# The Kenwood remote only sends the function code once.
# It then sends a button-pressed code that is the same for all buttons
# until the button is released.
# Functions for which a button would be held down (like volume up/down)
# continue for as long as the button-pressed code is sent.
# However, continually transmitting the function code also works,
# so no provision is made here for sending the button-pressed code.
# The following value is the pause between the remote code and the first
# transmission of the button-pressed code.
# sleep is the length of time to wait between sending different codes,
# in milliseconds
# Actual minimum measured at 50 mS
# zero and one describe the waveform used to transmit a zero and one as given
# in the function table. A ’~‘ represents a period of tranmitter ”on” time,
# during which time the emitter will be modulated by a 40 KHz square wave.
# For each ’~‘, IR pulses will be transmitted. A ’‘ (underscore)
# represents a period of transmitter ”off” time. The period is given by the
# value of cycles.
# start and stop give start and stop codes, if any, that cannot be described
# using ones and zeros as used in the function table and so cannot be given
# as prefixes and suffixes.
# start and stop are given in the same representation as zero and one.
# start and stop are the first and last codes transmitted (they are sent
# before and after prefix and suffix, respectively).
# prefix and suffix give the standard preamble and postable, if any,
# that come immediately before and after the function code.
# Prefix and suffix are given in the same representation as function codes.
# Remote functions are given as a line of tab-separated fields:
# Code Key Word Label Vars Description
# Code is given as a string of 0’s and 1’s whose meaning is
# in turn given by the definitions of ”zero” and ”one”.
# Remote is the name of the remote that this function is for.
# Key and Word are the key and word that can be used to send this code.
# If Word is a single character, it should be the same as Key.
# Label is the label to put on a button representation of this function.
# Variable assignments that should only have effect for one function
# are given in the Vars field.
# Description is a description of what this function does.
# Any further fields are appended to Description preceded by a newline.
# A function line can be extended onto multiple lines by beginning the
# extension lines with a tab.
# The tab is included in the value, so a field boundary always exists
# between extention lines.
#Code Key Word Label Vars Description
# long sleep for power to give switched components a chance to power up
10111001010001100 P power power sleep=500
Tuner, amp, and switched outlet power on/off
# Selecting a source stops play of all other sources that are Kenwood
# controlled equipment
00101001110101100 1 tape select tape 1 *
Select tape deck 1 as amp input & start play (if a Kenwood tape deck)
10101001010101100 2 tape2 select tape 2 *
Select/Unselect tape deck 2 as amp input
01001001101101100 c cd select cd *
Select cd player as amp input & start play (if a Kenwood cd player)
00001001111101100 h phono select phono *
Select turntable as amp input & start play (if a Kenwood turntable)
10001001011101100 t tuner select tuner *
Select tuner as amp input
01101001100101100 v video1 select video 1 *
Select video source 1 as amp input & video monitor output
11001001001101100 V video2 select video 2 *
Select video source 2 as amp input & video monitor output
00111001110001100 m mute mute *
Mute output/Unmute output
# Volume changing on the Kenwood amp is slow because it is electromechanical.
# Set sleep to 135 mS so that a bunch of volume up/downs don’t accumulate
# in the tty output buffer! It would be better to just wait for the buffer
# to drain after each write but awk can’t do that.
01011001101001100 d down volume down sleep=%135
Unmute output & adjust volume down (~67 steps, 135 mS/step)
amp:d,d,d,d,d,d,d,d,d,d,d,d,d,d,d,d,d q qtrdown vol 1/4 down
Set volume 1/4 further down
amp:q,q,q,q D zerovol zero volume
Set volume at zero
amp:u,u,u,u,u,u,u,u,u,u,u,u,u,u,u,u,u Q qtrup vol 1/4 up
Set volume 1/4 further up
11011001001001100 u up volume up sleep=%135
Unmute output & adjust volume up (~67 steps, 135 mS/step)
10100011010111000 e eq equalization
Graphic equalizer enabled/bypassed
11101011000101000 s surround surround *
Dolby surround sound decoder on/off
#00010000111011110 d disk select disk *
# Cycle between disk 1-2-3-4-5-6-P
#01100000100111110 < reverse reverse search *
#01110011100011000 l last last selection *
#10010011011011000 . stop stop *
#11010011001011000 p play play/pause *
#11100000000111110 > forward forward search *
#11110011000011000 n next next selection *
#00000011111111000 . stop stop *
#10000011011111000 p play play *
10011011011001000 p play play side 1 sleep=1000
Unpause & play side 1; repeat-play single tune if pressed in play mode.
00011011111001000 2 play2 play side 2 sleep=1000
Unpause & play side 2; repeat-play single tune if pressed in play mode.
00111011110001000 ” pause pause sleep=500
Pause if playing
# Up to 16 selections can be skipped by sending fast rev/fwd multiple times.
01011011101001000 < reverse fast reverse sleep=500
Wind side 1 reverse/side 2 forward; search for selection if playing
11011011001001000 > forward fast forward sleep=500
Wind side 1 forward/side 2 reverse; search for selection if playing
10111011010001000 . stop stop *
Stop playing or winding
01111011100001000 R record record sleep=700
01110001100011100 a am am *
Select tuner as amp input and select AM reception
10011001011001100 s scan preset scan *
Start/stop scanning 20 preset channels; pause 5 sec. on active stations
11110001000011100 f fm fm *
Select tuner as amp input and select FM reception
tuner:s,s n next next station *
Go to next preset station
- John H. DuBois III spcecdt[at]deeptht.santa-cruz.ca.us